Knee

Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint

The knee is made up of four bones. The femur or thighbone is the bone connecting the hip to the knee. The tibia or shinbone connects the knee to the ankle. The patella (kneecap) is the small bone in front of the knee and rides on the knee joint as the knee bends. The fibula is a shorter and thinner bone running parallel to the tibia on its outside. The joint acts like a hinge but with some rotation.

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Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint

Knee Arthroscopy is a common surgical procedure performed using an arthroscope, a viewing instrument, to look into the knee joint to diagnose or treat a knee problem. It is a relatively safe procedure and a majority of the patient’s discharge from the hospital on the same day of surgery.

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Total Knee Replacement (TKR)

Total knee replacement, also called total knee arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which the worn out or damaged surfaces of the knee joint are removed and replaced with artificial parts. The knee is made up of the femur (thigh bone), the tibia (shin bone), and patella (kneecap). The meniscus, the soft cartilage between the femur and tibia, serves as a cushion and helps absorb shock during motion. Arthritis (inflammation of the joints), injury, or other diseases of the joint can damage this protective layer of cartilage, causing extreme pain and difficulty in performing daily activities. Your doctor may recommend surgery if non-surgical treatment options have failed to relieve the symptoms.

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament ACL Reconstruction

The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope like structure located in the center of the knee running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears unfortunately, it does not heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.

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ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction hamstring method is a surgical procedure that replaces the injured ACL with a hamstring tendon. Anterior cruciate ligament is one of the four major ligaments of the knee that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone) and helps stabilize your knee joint. Anterior cruciate ligament prevents excessive forward movement of the lower leg bone (the tibia) in relation to the thigh bone (the femur) as well as limits rotational movements of the knee.

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ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction patellar tendon is a surgical procedure that replaces the injured ACL with a patellar tendon. Anterior cruciate ligament is one of the four major ligaments of the knee that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone) and helps stabilize the knee joint. Anterior cruciate ligament prevents excessive forward movement of the lower leg bone (tibia) in relation to the thigh bone (femur) as well as limits rotational movements of the knee.

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Uni Condylar Knee Replacement

Unicompartmental knee replacement is a minimally invasive surgery in which only the damaged compartment of the knee is replaced with an implant. It is also called a partial knee replacement. The knee can be divided into three compartments: patellofemoral, the compartment in front of the knee between the knee cap and thigh bone, medial compartment, on the inside portion of the knee, and lateral compartment which is the area on the outside portion of the knee joint.

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Carticel Reimplantation

Carticel uses your own cartilage cells (chondrocytes) to repair the articular cartilage damage in your knee. When implanted into a cartilage injury, your own cells can form new cartilage; this new cartilage is very similar to your original cartilage. The Carticel implantation procedure is called Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation or ACI. It is a two-step process.

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Management of Knee Arthritis

As the term relates to knee replacement surgery, minimally invasive techniques, instruments and implants have been developed that use all the principles of minimally invasive surgery (shorter incisions, less tissue damage and quicker recovery). For patients with knee arthritis, there are 2 different types of surgery.

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Revision Knee Replacement

Revision knee replacement surgery involves replacing part or all of your previous knee prosthesis with a new prosthesis. Although total knee replacement surgery is successful, sometimes the procedure can fail due to various reasons and require a second revision surgery.

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Knee Fracture

A fracture is a condition in which there is break in the continuity of the bone. In younger individuals, these fractures are caused from high energy injuries, as from a motor vehicle accident. In older people the most common cause is weak and fragile bone.

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Meniscus Tear

Meniscus tear is the commonest knee injury in athletes, especially those involved in contact sports. A suddenly bend or twist in your knee cause the meniscus to tear. This is a traumatic meniscus tear. Elderly people are more prone to degenerative meniscal tears as the cartilage wears out and weakens with age. The two wedge-shape cartilage pieces present between the thighbone and the shinbone are called meniscus. They stabilize the knee joint and act as "shock absorbers".

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Patellofemoral Instability

The knee can be divided into three compartments: patellofemoral, medial and lateral compartment. The patellofemoral compartment is the compartment in the front of the knee between the knee cap and thigh bone. The medial compartment is the area on the inside portion of the knee, and the lateral compartment is the area on the outside portion of the knee joint. Patellofemoral instability means that the patella (kneecap) moves out of its normal pattern of alignment. This malalignment can damage the underlying soft structures such as muscles and ligaments that hold the knee in place.

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Hyaluronates

In order for joints to move smoothly they must contain an adequate amount of synovial fluid, which acts as a lubricant and shock absorber. Osteoarthritis causes synovial fluid to lose its properties by depletion of a component called hyaluronan. This leads to loss of cartilage and painful rubbing of the bones in the joints. A gel-like form of hyaluronan called hyaluronates or hyaluronic acid may be prepared and injected into the joints to increase their lubricating and shock-absorbing properties. Hyaluronate injections can relieve pain, improve mobility and delay the need for surgery.

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Terence Delaney MD
14911 National Avenue
Suite 3
Los Gatos, CA 95032
Working Hours: Monday to Friday - 9:00am - 5:00pm